Funaria life cycle Class 11 Biology. Back to categories. Occurrence l The genus Funaria comprises species. In India, it is represented by 15 species. The following diagram gives one example of a bryophyte life cycle, that of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. click to enlarge · Print this diagram as. Funaria hygrometrica – life cycle. Gametophyte. Spores. Protonema. Sporophytes . See. SEP. A recently germinated spore with a rudimentary protonema. spore.

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The oospore divides and tunaria to form embryo. The sporophyte is thus the only diploid phase of the entire life cycle in mosses. To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors.

Life cycle of mosses Example of the life cycle in mosses A Polytrichum, antheridial antheridial cups in cross-section with ‘leaflets’ at the edge zoom B Detail of ‘leaflet” of Polytrichium, with 1 lamellae and 2 costa zoom C Detail of the antheridium in Polytrichium zoom D Mature spore capsule of fknaria with spores zoom E Archegonium of a moss with egg cell 1 and neck 2 zoom Stereo-projection of a leaflet of Polytrichum made with a confocal laser scanning microscope.

These cells die out and break up the protonema into single cell or many celled funarai. The cells of the outer layer divide by anticlinal divisions to form 16 cells Fig. The exchange of CO 2 and O 2 happens mainly by diffusion for example through the large surface of lamellae on the leaflets cycpe, also through pores occur in Liverworts and through stomata on the capsule of the sporophyte of Hornworts and True Mosses.

The cells contain many large and prominent chloroplasts Fig. They have no vascular system. The inner ring of peristomial teeth do not show hygroscopic movement. The antheridia are intermingled with large number of sterile hair like club shaped structures called paraphyses Sing, paraphysis Fig. Each archegonium has a stalk, flask-shaped venter and a neck.


Most of the branches grow horizontally on the moist surface of the soil and are known as chloronemal branches positive phototrophic, thick and rich in chloroplast while some branches grow down funariw the soil and are called rhizoidal branches non-green, thin and possess oblique septa Fig.

The outer peristomial teeth exostome are hygroscopic. Simultaneously when the apical cell is dividing, the third or fourth segments below the apical cell, starts dividing from base, upwards by diagonal vertical walls.

They remain small in size, hardly ever exceeding 15 cm. Both leaf-like and stem-like structures are seen, but distinct water-conducting structures like a vascular system with lignified xylem vessels and phloem lack.

DVD-Video, in German, but the images are self-explaining Mosses are simple, green little land plants, which are considered as “lower plants”.

During unfavorable conditions, the terminal cells of the protonemal branches divide by transverse, longitudinal divisions and form green multicellular bodies of cells Fig. A little more than species are known. De dispersion of these spores can take days. These serve for anchorage to the substrate and water uptake, but they are no true roots. Liffe organ present on gametophyte.

Funaria – Wikipedia

When the capsule dries up, Operculum thrown off to expose the peristome consisting of two overlapping rings of periostomial teeth. The lower cells form the lower part of the stalk of the antheridium. The terminal cell of chcle filament divides by two vertical intersecting walls, thus an ,ife cell with two cutting faces is differentiated Fig.

It is made up to parenchymatous cells. Such type of divisions takes place in all the upper segments except the apical cell which develops into operculum.

Mosses (Overview)

After fertilization the zygote develops into a sporophyte, which however remains attached to the female gametophyte. Venter canal cell is situated just below the neck canal cells.

Axis is 1—3 cm. It forms velvety tufts on moist ground, rocks, tree trunks, under shade etc. Stereo-projection of a leaflet of Polytrichum made with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Amann Castelli Funaria nilotica Broth. The central tissue is known as endothecium and the peripheral cells from the amphithecium Fig.


Mosses (Overview)

The gametangia develop at the top of the male and female gametophytes. In it certain colourless separation cells are formed by intercalary divisions. The apices of protonemal branches, leaves an fuaria develop gemmae. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policyincluding cookie policy. It is the photosynthetic region and connects seta with capsule. Below the epidermis is spongy parenchyma.

Development of gametophyte from sporophyte without the formation of spores is known as apospory. It divides by transverse divisions to form cyce short filament of cells Fig. Each mature antheridium has a short talk and a dub-shaped jacketed body.

Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. These branches can develop chlorophyll if expose to light. The lengthening and shortening of the outer peristomial teeth help in the dispersal of spores. The tip of male shoot has a convex disc or receptacle on which a cluster of club-shaped antheridia intermingled with like capitates paraphysis arises.

The growth of the axis is due to the activity of a pyramidal apical cell. It develops at the apex of the male branch. Published by siddharth verma Modified about 1 year ago. Projected antheridia are surrounded by a rosette of spreading leaves called perigonial leaves.

Funaria is protandrous i. The life cycles of all mosses Liverworts, Hornworts and Bryophytes are in principle similar.

Life Cycle of Funaria: Sexual and Vegetative Life Cycle

Water is essential for fertilization. The opercular cells become mucilaginous, absorb water and swell, break connections with the neighbouring cells and form a narrow pore.

The edges of the archegoniophore are slightly curved downward like the cap of mushrooms.